HFOSS is not a lawyer, and this does not constitute legal advice.
1) The Bayh-Dole Act was passed, which gave rise to university technology transfer offices; the GNU Project and Free Software Foundation were founded; the US acceded to the international Berne Convention on copyrights; software was explicitly covered by US federal copyright law [ 1 pt]
2) Creative Commons was founded. [1 pt]
3) UNIX was published, Michael Hart started digitizing texts for what became Project Gutenburg, and Bill Gates wrote his “Open Letter to Hobbyists”. [1 pt]
4) Linus Torvalds started writing the Linux kernel, the Digital Millenium Copyright Act was passed. [1 pt]
Please match each shorthand given in the numbered list with the letter next to the description of that license element below (2 pt for each match).
5) Several elements are combined in different ways to form the various Creative Commons licenses.
5.1) NC _ 5.2) SA _ 5.3) ND _ 5.4) BY _ A) You must convey the same rights "downstream" that were conveyed to you by "upstream". B) You must attribute the contributions of the original or upstream creators of the work. C) You may not use the work for commercial purposes. D) You may not make changes to the work.
6) The presence of which license elements make a license “non-free” in the eyes of the FSF? (give the letters, 1 pt each)
7) Which license element is a copyleft? (give the letter, 1 pt)
8) Name two projects which distribute a body of non-software, free culture data, and briefly name or describe the kind of data. (1 pt XC each)
[Wikimedia Commons](https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Main_Page) - Contains freely usable media files to which anyone can contribute. (Images and video).
[ccMixter](http://ccmixter.org/) - Global music community that allows people to explore and contribute remixes, samples, and acapellas. (Audio).
9) We discussed several concepts involving rights, restrictions, and licensing. Match the capital letter of the term on the left with lower-case letter of the most appropriate description on the right. (2 pts each)
9.1) trademark 9.2) copyright 9.3) patent 9.4) trademark 9.5) copyright 9.6) patent a) 20 year term b) lasts as long as used & defended c) life of the author plus 70 years d) arises as soon as a work takes tangible form e) precedence is given to the first to file an application f) protects consumers from confusing one product with another